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Hash Table: Replacement


The hash table is completely cleared before every move. This is good for debugging, because it makes the move independent of the history that might have filled the hash table. It also means that the Zobrist keys don't have to be conserved between moves, and they can start at any value.


Micro-Max uses a very simple replacement scheme. For every position only one result is stored. If this result is not exact, it is always replaced, no matter what its depth was. If it was an exact result, it is only replaced by results of better or equal depth. Also equal, because it is more recent, and therefore might be more reliable: a re-search at the same depth does not necessarily return the same result as before, because the hash table is learning all the time (deepening the entry for all positions), so a newer search might benefit from hits to deeper, and therefore more reliable, other positions.

This scheme worked dramatically better than any other I tried in my benchmark, the KPK end-game. Especially clinging on to deep non-exact results produced very poor performance: the bounds stored in the table might have no use after a major re-adjustment of the score (e.g. because the promotion gets within the horizon), after which the new situation has to be searched without the benefit of the hash table, because it is crammed with useless data that refuses to make way. And without the aid of the hashing of shallow nodes the search will never get as deep as before, so it will never get to replace the obsolete entries.

By the way, there is no reason to assume that 'deep' results are more valuable than shallower searches: it is more work to perform such a deep search if it was not in the table, but you won't need to do it that often, while shallow searches are quickly done, but need to be done in very any nodes deep in the tree. In the end that kind of balances.

Below the code that implements the hash-table replacement is highlighted:

/*                               micro-Max,                                */
/* A chess program smaller than 2KB (of non-blank source), by H.G. Muller  */
/* version 3.2 (2000 characters) features:                                 */
/* - recursive negamax search                                              */
/* - quiescence search with recaptures                                     */
/* - recapture extensions                                                  */
/* - (internal) iterative deepening                                        */
/* - best-move-first 'sorting'                                             */
/* - a hash table storing score and best move                              */
/* - full FIDE rules (expt minor ptomotion) and move-legality checking     */

#define F(I,S,N) for(I=S;I<N;I++)
#define W(A) while(A)
#define K(A,B) *(int*)(T+A+(B&8)+S*(B&7))
#define J(A) K(y+A,b[y])-K(x+A,u)-K(H+A,t)

#define U 16777224
struct _ {int K,V;char X,Y,D;} A[U];           /* hash table, 16M+8 entries*/

int V=112,M=136,S=128,I=8e3,C=799,Q,N,i;       /* V=0x70=rank mask, M=0x88 */

char O,K,L,
w[]={0,1,1,3,-1,3,5,9},                        /* relative piece values    */
o[]={-16,-15,-17,0,1,16,0,1,16,15,17,0,14,18,31,33,0, /* step-vector lists */
     7,-1,11,6,8,3,6,                          /* 1st dir. in o[] per piece*/
     6,3,5,7,4,5,3,6},                         /* initial piece setup      */
b[129],                                        /* board: half of 16x8+dummy*/
T[1035],                                       /* hash translation table   */

n[]=".?+nkbrq?*?NKBRQ";                        /* piece symbols on printout*/

D(k,q,l,e,J,Z,E,z,n)    /* recursive minimax search, k=moving side, n=depth*/
int k,q,l,e,J,Z,E,z,n;  /* (q,l)=window, e=current eval. score, E=e.p. sqr.*/
{                       /* e=score, z=prev.dest; J,Z=hashkeys; return score*/
 int j,r,m,v,d,h,i=8,F,G;
 char t,p,u,x,y,X,Y,H,B;
 struct _*a=A;
                                               /* lookup pos. in hash table*/
 j=(k*E^J)&U-9;                                /* try 8 consec. locations  */
 while((h=A[++j].K)&&h-Z&&--i);                /* first empty or match     */
 a+=i?j:0;                                     /* dummy A[0] if miss & full*/
 if(a->K)                                      /* hit: pos. is in hash tab */
 {d=a->D;v=a->V;X=a->X;                        /* examine stored data      */
  if(d>=n)                                     /* if depth sufficient:     */
  {if(v>=l|X&S&&v<=q|X&8)return v;             /* use if window compatible */
   d=n-1;                                      /* or use as iter. start    */
  }X&=~M;Y=a->Y;                               /*      with best-move hint */
  Y=d?Y:0;                                     /* don't try best at d=0    */
 }else d=X=Y=0;                                /* start iter., no best yet */
 N++;                                          /* node count (for timing)  */
 W(d++<n|z==8&N<1e7&d<98)                      /* iterative deepening loop */
 {x=B=X;                                       /* start scan at prev. best */
  Y|=8&Y>>4;                                   /* request try noncastl. 1st*/
  m=d>1?-I:e;                                  /* unconsidered:static eval */
  do{u=b[x];                                   /* scan board looking for   */
   if(u&k)                                     /*  own piece (inefficient!)*/
   {r=p=u&7;                                   /* p = piece type (set r>0) */
    j=o[p+16];                                 /* first step vector f.piece*/
    W(r=p>2&r<0?-r:-o[++j])                    /* loop over directions o[] */
    {A:                                        /* resume normal after best */
     y=x;F=G=S;                                /* (x,y)=move, (F,G)=castl.R*/
     do{H=y+=r;                                /* y traverses ray          */
      if(Y&8)H=y=Y&~M;                         /* sneak in prev. best move */
      if(y&M)break;                            /* board edge hit           */
      if(p<3&y==E)H=y^16;                      /* shift capt.sqr. H if e.p.*/
      t=b[H];if(t&k|p<3&!(r&7)!=!t)break;      /* capt. own, bad pawn mode */
      i=99*w[t&7];                             /* value of capt. piece t   */
      if(i<0||E-S&&b[E]&&y-E<2&E-y<2)m=I;      /* K capt. or bad castling  */
      if(m>=l)goto C;                          /* abort on fail high       */
      if(h=d-(y!=z))                           /* remaining depth(-recapt.)*/
      {v=p<6?b[x+8]-b[y+8]:0;                  /* center positional pts.   */
       b[G]=b[H]=b[x]=0;b[y]=u&31;             /* do move, strip virgin-bit*/
       if(!(G&M)){b[F]=k+6;v+=30;}             /* castling: put R & score  */
       if(p<3)                                 /* pawns:                   */
       {v-=9*(((x-2)&M||b[x-2]!=u)+            /* structure, undefended    */
              ((x+2)&M||b[x+2]!=u)-1);         /*        squares plus bias */
        if(y+r+1&S){b[y]|=7;i+=C;}             /* promote p to Q, add score*/
       v=-D(24-k,-l-(l>e),m>q?-m:-q,-e-v-i,    /* recursive eval. of reply */
            J+J(0),Z+J(8)+G-S,F,y,h);          /* J,Z: hash keys           */
       v-=v>e;                                 /* delayed-gain penalty     */
       if(z==9)                                /* called as move-legality  */
       {if(v!=-I&x==K&y==L)                    /*   checker: if move found */
        {Q=-e-i;O=F;return l;}                 /*   & not in check, signal */
        v=m;                                   /* (prevent fail-lows on    */
       }                                       /*   K-capt. replies)       */
       b[G]=k+38;b[F]=b[y]=0;b[x]=u;b[H]=t;    /* undo move,G can be dummy */
       if(Y&8){m=v;Y&=~8;goto A;}              /* best=1st done,redo normal*/
       if(v>m){m=v;X=x;Y=y|S&G;}               /* update max, mark with S  */
      }                                        /*          if non castling */
      t+=p<5;                                  /* fake capt. for nonsliding*/
      if(p<3&6*k+(y&V)==S                      /* pawn on 3rd/6th, or      */
          ||(u&~24)==36&j==7&&                 /* virgin K moving sideways,*/
          G&M&&b[G=(x|7)-(r>>1&7)]&32          /* 1st, virgin R in corner G*/
          &&!(b[G^1]|b[G^2])                   /* 2 empty sqrs. next to R  */
      ){F=y;t--;}                              /* unfake capt., enable e.p.*/
     }W(!t);                                   /* if not capt. continue ray*/
  }}}W((x=x+9&~M)-B);                          /* next sqr. of board, wrap */
C:if(m>I/4|m<-I/4)d=99;                        /* mate is indep. of depth  */
  m=m+I?m:-D(24-k,-I,I,0,J,Z,S,z,1)/2;         /* best loses K: (stale)mate*/
  if(!a->K|(a->X&M)!=M|a->D<=d)                /* if new/better type/depth:*/
  {a->K=Z;a->V=m;a->D=d;A->K=0;                /* store in hash,dummy stays*/
   a->X=X|8*(m>q)|S*(m<l);a->Y=Y;              /* empty, type (limit/exact)*/
  }                                            /*    encoded in X S,8 bits */
/*if(z==8)printf("%2d ply, %9d searched, %6d by (%2x,%2x)\n",d-1,N,m,X,Y&0x77);*/
 return m;                                     

 int j,k=8,*p,c[9];

 {b[i]=(b[i+V]=o[i+24]+40)+8;b[i+16]=18;b[i+96]=9;   /* initial board setup*/
  F(j,0,8)b[16*j+i+8]=(i-4)*(i-4)+(j-3.5)*(j-3.5);   /* center-pts table   */
 }                                                   /*(in unused half b[])*/

 W(1)                                                /* play loop          */
 {F(i,0,121)printf(" %c",i&8&&(i+=7)?10:n[b[i]&15]); /* print board        */
  p=c;W((*p++=getchar())>10);                        /* read input line    */
  if(*c-10){K=c[0]-16*c[1]+C;L=c[2]-16*c[3]+C;}else  /* parse entered move */
   D(k,-I,I,Q,1,1,O,8,0);                            /* or think up one    */
  for(i=0;i<U;i++)A[i].K=0;                          /* clear hash table   */
  if(D(k,-I,I,Q,1,1,O,9,2)==I)k^=24;                 /* check legality & do*/
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