SummaryThis program is a shortened version of the program Regression in which more regression models are integrated. Every measurement is influenced by many uncertainties. Measurement uncertainties can never be completely eliminated, so the true value for any quantity is never known exactly.
Linear regression is a statistical tool that helps you to determine the "bestfitting" straight line for any given set of experimental data. In the relationship y = ax + b the constants a and b are being determined. The obtained function hands over which value is to be expected on an average for the one variable (y) at a given value of the other variable (x). You might prefer knowing more about linear regression beforehand. If so, it is recommended to view an interactive demonstration in order to understand the basic outcomes a linear regression analysis has to offer. 
Program Listing 
Help 
PROGRAM:REGLIN  R : ALPHA, R keys 
ClrHome  > PRGM > I/O > ClrHome 
RectGC:CoordOn  > 2nd FORMAT > ... : : ALPHA, : keys 
GridOn:AxesOn  
LabelOn:ExprOn  
PlotsOff  > 2nd STAT PLOT > PlotsOff 
FnOff  > VARS > YVARS > On/Off... > ... 
GraphStyle(1,1)  > PRGM > CTL > GraphStyle , : comma key 
1 → Xres  "→" Symbolizes the STO> key > VARS > Window... > Xres 
Disp "STORE VALUES","INTO L1 AND L2."  > PRGM > I/O > Disp Space: ALPHA, .. (above 0 key) L1 : 2nd, L1 keys 
Pause  > PRGM > CTL > Pause 
(max(L1)–min(L1))/5 → U  > MATH > NUM > max( 
10^(int(log(U))) → Z  10^( : 2nd, 10^{x} keys > MATH > NUM > int( 
U/Z → U  
(int(√(U–1))²+1)Z → Xscl  √( : 2nd, √ keys (square root) ² : x² key > VARS > Window... > X/Y > Xscl 
(max(L2)–min(L2))/5 → V  
10^(int(log(V))) → Z  
V/Z → V  
(int(√(V–1))²+1)Z → Yscl  √( : square root Xscl and Yscl will be set to 1, 2, or 5 times a power of ten. 
Plot1(Scatter,L1,L2, §)  > 2nd STAT PLOT > Plot1( > 2nd STAT PLOT > TYPE > Scatter > 2nd STAT PLOT > MARK > § (small square) 
ZoomStat  > ZOOM > ZoomStat 
ZoomSto  > ZOOM > MEMORY > ... 
Lbl 0 : ClrHome  > PRGM > CTL > Lbl > PRGM > I/O > ClrHome 
Menu("","VIEW L1,L2",1, "LinReg(ax+b) ", 2, "ZOOM,Trace", 60, "Stop",7)  > PRGM > CTL > Menu( > STAT > CALC > LinReg(ax+b) > TRACE > PRGM > CTL > Stop 
Lbl 60  
Menu("","Zoom Out",61, "Zoom In",62, "RESET ZOOM",63, "Trace",64, "HOME",65)  > ZOOM > ... 
Lbl 1  
Output(1,1,L1)  > PRGM > I/O > ... 
Pause :ClrHome  
Output(1,1,L2)  
Pause  
Goto 0  > PRGM > CTL > ... 
Lbl 2  
Disp "LinReg(ax+b) ", "a,b,r²,r"  > STAT > CALC > LinReg(ax+b) > VARS > Statistics... > EQ > a (and b,r²,r) 
LinReg(ax+b) Y1  > VARS > YVARS > Function... > Y1 
Disp a,b,r²,r  > VARS > ... 
Pause  
DispGraph  > PRGM > I/O > DispGraph 
Pause  
Goto 0  
Lbl 61  
√(2) → Z : Z → XFact  (square root) 
Z → YFact  > VARS > Window... > X/Y > Xfact 
10^(int(log((XmaxXmin)/Z))) → Xscl  
10^(int(log((YmaxYmin)/Z))) → Yscl  
Zoom Out  > ZOOM > Zoom Out 
Pause  
Goto 60  
Lbl 62  
Zoom In:Pause  
Goto 60  
Lbl 63  
ZoomRcl:Pause  > ZOOM > MEMORY > ZoomRcl 
Goto 60  
Lbl 64:Trace  > TRACE 
Goto 60  
Lbl 65:Goto 0  
Lbl 7  
Xscl → ΔTbl:Stop  > VARS > Table... > ΔTbl (DeltaTbl) > PRGM > CTL > Stop 
An ApplicationAfter putting in the program listing, you might like to see the program working. Try this example.
The ExperimentA long tube is placed vertically and filled with a viscous liquid. (Which liquid is not?) When a bullet, being made up of steel, is let loose in the liquid, the sinking speed soon becomes constant. To determine this constant velocity, the position x is measured as a function of time t. The measuring outcome is:
Entering the ValuesThe time t is considered the independent variable and is measured along the horizontal axis of a graph. The position x, the dependent variable, is measured along the vertical axis. List 1 (L1) must contain values of the variable, which is to be plotted along the horizontal axis.
Getting the Linear Equation and the Coefficient of CorrelationAfter preparing L1 and L2, run the program. A menu appears.
The produced value of the coefficient of correlation (r = 0,99952) indicates that the found linear equation is only a fair representation of the relationship between the measured t and x values. Counting the nines, that directly follow the comma in the coefficient of correlation, is a convenient way to find out the usefulness of the equation. In chemical and physical determinations the number of nines may be interpreted in this way: five nines mean an excellent representation, four nines a good one, three nines a fair one, two nines a poor one, and one nine means a very poor representation. With no nines directly behind the comma the equation is "unusable".
Viewing the Plotted Points and the Straight LinePress ENTER.
TracingOnce the graph has been drawn, press ENTER, select option "3:ZOOM,Trace" in the menu, and "4:Trace" in the following submenu. Next, use the left and right arrow keys to trace the values of the plotted measuring points.
Press the up arrow key once to enable tracing the plotted line. Again, use the left and right arrow keys to explore the coordinates of some points of the line. Using the TABLE function is another way to get these values. Stop the execution of the program by selecting "5:HOME" in the submenu and "4:Stop" in the main menu. Then call on the TABLE function. You may have to adjust the table settings using the TBLSET function.

Hein ten Horn
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